ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION 2

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E — WASTE

E-waste is not hazardous if it is stocked in safe storage or recycled by scientific methods or transported from one place to the other in parts or in totality in the formal sector. The e-waste can be considered hazardous if recycled by primitive methods

Survey was carried out by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) during 2005

In India, among top ten cities; Mumbai ranks first in generating e-waste followed by Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, Pune, Surat and Nagpur.

 

SOLID WASTE

the discarded (abandoned or considered waste-like) materials

does not include solid or dissolved materials in domestic sewage, or

solid or dissolved materials in irrigation return flows or industrial discharges0

Conventional plastics have been associated with reproductive problems in both humans and wildlife.

Dioxin (highly carcinogenic and toxic) by-product of the manufacturing process is one of the chemicals believed to be passed on through breast milk to the nursing infant.

Burning of plastics, especially PVC releases this dioxin and also furan into the  atmosphere.

Pyrolysis-It is a process of combustion in absence of oxygen or the material burnt under controlled atmosphere of oxygen. It is an alternative to incineration. The gas and liquid thus obtained can be used as fuels.

 

Waste Minimization Circles (WMC)

helps Small and Medium Industrial Clusters in waste minimization in their industrial plants.  assisted by the World Bank with the Ministry of Environment and Forests acting   as the nodal ministry.  being implemented with the assistance of National   Productivity Council (NPC), New Delhi.

aims to realise the objectives of the Policy Statement for Abatement of Pollution (1992), which states that the government should educate citizens about environmental risks, the economic and health dangers of resource degradation and the real economic cost of natural resources.

BIOREMEDIATION

the use of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) to degrade the environmental contaminants into less toxic forms.

Phytoremediation

is use of plants to remove contaminants from soil and water .

Rhizofiltration

  • a water remediation technique that involves the uptake of contaminants by plant roots.
  • used to reduce contamination in natural wetlands and estuary areas.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

Notification on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of developmental

projects 1994 under the provisions of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 making EIA  mandatory for 29 categories of developmental projects. One more item was added to the list in January, 2000. environmental impact assessment statutory for 30 activities

Environment Impact Assessment Notification of 2006 has categorized the developmental projects  in two categories, i.e., Category A and Category B

Ministry of Environment & Forests

‘Category A’ projects are appraised at national level by expert appraisal committee

India has constituted the State Level Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA) and State Level Expert Appraisal Committee (SEAC)  to decentralize the environmental clearance process

The objective of EIA is to foresee and address potential environmental problems/  concerns at an early stage of project planning and design.

 

 

The EIA notification establishes four stages for obtaining Environmental Clearance.

  1. Screening
  2. Scoping and consideration of alternatives Baseline data collection
  3. Impact prediction
  4. Assessment of alternatives, delineation of mitigation measures and environmental impact statement
  5. Public hearing
  6. Environment Management Plan Decision making
  7. Monitoring the clearance conditions

Screening- It is only for Categories B

Screening Criteria are based upon:

  • Scales of investment; •       Type of development; and, •      Location of development

B1 Categories project require Environmental Impact Assessment while B2 category projects are exempted from EIA.

State Level Expert Appraisal Committee determine about project categories

Climate Change

 

  • It is the long term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time
  • Though it has been happening naturally for millions of years, in recent years it has accelerated due to anthropogenic causes and has been causing global warming.
  • UNFCCC defines climate change as – “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activitythat alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods”

 

Climate Change Mitigation

  • Alternative Energy sources
    • Renewable energy
    • Nuclear Power
    • Reduce the carbon intensity of fossil fuels
  • Energy efficiency and conservation
    • Transport and urban planning
    • Building design
    • Reforestation and avoid deforestation
    • Eliminating waste methane
  • Geoengineering
    • Greenhouse gas remediation
      • Biomass
      • Carbon air capture
      • Carbon capture and storage
    • Societal control
      • Population
      • Sustainable life-style

 

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