JPSC Mains Paper 3:SOCIAL SCIENCES (History and Geography) Notes

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Ancient Period :

(i) The Indus Valley Civilization : Origin, antiquity, extent, authorship and main features;

(iilOrigin of the Aryans

(iii) Antiquity and stratification of the Vedic literature; Society, economy and religion during Early (Rig-Vedic) period.

(iv) The Lichavi and their republican constitution.

(v) The Rise of the Magadhan empire

(vi)The Mauryas : Extent of empire, Kalinga War and its Impact; Asoka’s Dhamma, Foreign Policy, Development of Art & Architecture during the Mauryan period

(vii) The Kushanas : Kanishka : Extent of empire, His religious policy; Development of Art, Architecture and Letters during the Kushana period

(viii) The Guptas : Extent of empire; development of language and Literature, art St architecture during the Gupta period.

(Ix) Harsha-Vardhan : The last great Hindu ruler of Northern India; cultural achievements during his period.

(x) The Cholas: Maritime activities in Sourth-east Asian counturies. Chola administration, art & architecture.

(xi) Cultural Achievements of the Pallavas

Medieval Period

(xii) The Arab Invasion of India

(xiii)The Ghaznavid Invasion of India.

[xlv] The Delhi Sultanate : Market and Military Reforms of Allauddin Khilji;Utopian policies of Muhainmad-bin-Tughlaq.

(xv) The Mongol invasion of India,

(xvl)Religious Movements; a) Sufism,(b)Bhakti Movement

(xvii)Dawn of a New-Islamic culture : Indo-Islamic architecture; Development of Urdu and Hindi languages.

(xviii) The Mughals ; First Battle of Panipatj Achievements of SherShah Suri, Consolidation of MuRhal empire; Establishment nf Jagirdari and Mansabdari systems under Akbar, Akbar’s Religious and Rajput policies, Aurangzeb’s Religious and Rajput policies, Mughal Architecture and Painting,Economic Condition during Mughalperiod.

(xix) The Rise of the Marathas : Achievements of Shlvaji,Northward expansion of the Marathas and their downfall

Modem Period:

(xx)Beginning of European settlements:Formation and growth of East India Company; Consolidation of British power in India : Battles of Plassey and Buxar; Control over Mysore; Subsidiary Alliance; Doctrine of Lapse; Doctrine of Escheat

(xxi) Resistance to Colonial Rule; Peasant; Tribal and Cultural Renaissance; Revolt of 1857

(xxil)Social Reforms Movements in Hindu Community : Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj, Ram Krishna Mission, Prarthann Samaj and Theosophical Society of India.

(xxiii)Social Reforms Movements in Muslim Community : Wahabi Movement & AliRarh Movement

(xxiv) Struggle for Raising Women’s status : Abolition of Sati System, Widow Marriage Act, Consent Bill,Stress on Female education,

(xxv) Land Revenue Administration under the British rule : Permanent Settlement; Ryotwarl & Mahalwari Systems,

(xxvi) Rise of Nationalism in India in the 19th century : Formation of Indian National Congress ; Moderates and Extremists; Swadeshi Movement , Home Rule League Movement; Khiiafat Movement ,

(xxvii) Mahatma Gandhi and Mass politics : Non-Co-oporation Movement Civil Disobedience Movement Quit India Movement

(xxviii)The partition of India and its consequences

(xxix) India After Independence : Integration of Princely states in Indian Union; Linguistic Reorganization of States; Non-alligned policy under Nehru and Indira Gandhi, Libration of Bangladesh.

History of Jharkhand 

Section (B) – Geography: 100 Marks

(A) Physical Geography (General Principles) :
(I) Origin and evolution of earth, interior of earth, Wegner’s Continental Drift Theory; Plate tectonics.Volcanoes, Earthquakes and Tsunamis
(ii)Major types of rocks and their characteristics, evolution and characteristics of landforms in the Fluvial, Glacial, Arid and Karst regions
(iii) Geomorphic processes; Weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition,soil formation,Landscape cycles, ideas of Davis and Penck
(iv)Composition, Structure and Stratification of the atmosphere
(v) Insolation,heat budget of the earth.
(vi) Horizontal and vertical distribution of temperature, inversion of temperature.
(vii) Air masses and fronts. Tropical and temperate cyclones.
(vtii) Evaporation and Condensation: dew, frost, fog, mist and cloud, rainfall types.
(ix)Classification of climates, (Koppen and Thornthwaite), Greenhouse effect, global warming and climatic changes
(x) Hydrological cycle, distribution of temperature and solicits in the oceans and seas, waves,tides and currents, ocean floor relief features,
(S) Physical and Human Geography of India ;
(xi) Structure, relief and physiographic divisions.Drainage Systems Himalayan and the Peninsular.
(xii)Indian monsoon, mechanism, onset and retreat, climatic types (Koppen and Trewartha).Green Revolution and its impact on major crops of India. Food scarcity
(xlll) Natural Vegetation-Forest types and distribution, wild life, conservation, biosphere reserves.
(xiv)Major types of Soils.(ICAR classification) and their distribution. Soil degradation and conservation
(xv) Natural Hazards : Floods, Droughts, Cyclones, Landslides,
(xvl) Population growth, distribution and density
(xvli)Age: Sex, ratio, rural-urban composition;
(xviii)Population, environment and development
(xlx)Types of Settlements : rural and urban. Urban morphology; functional classification of urban settlements Problems of human settlement in India.
(C) Natural Resources of India; Development and Utilization Land Resources ie General land use, agricultural land use,
(xx) geographical condition and distribution of major crops, like,Rice, Wheat,Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Rubber, Tea and Coffee,
(xxi) Water Resources : Availability and utilization for industrial and other purposes, irrigation, scarcity of water, methods of conservation-rain water harvesting and watershed management, ground water management.
(xxii)Minerals and Energy Resources : Distribution and utility of [a] metaiic minerals (ion ore, copper, bauxite, magnese), (b) non- metallic and conventional minerals [coal,petroleum and natural gas), (cj hydro electricity and non conventional sources of energy (Solar, Wind, bio-gas),(d) energy sources Their distribution and conservation.
(xxiii) Development of Industries : Types of Industries;factors of industrial location, distribution and changing pattern of selected industries [iron and steel, cotton textile, sugar and petro- chemicals); Weber’s theory of industrial location-lts relevance in the modern world.
(xxiv) Transport, Communication and International Trade : Roads, railways and water ways. Bases of International trade, changing pattern of India’s ‘ foreign trade.

(D) Geography of Jharkhand and Utilization of its Resources :

(xxv) Geological history,landforms, drainage, climate, soil types and forests; agriculture and irrigation,Damodar & Suberna rekha valley projects; mineral resources of Jharkhand,their extraction and utilization,
(xxvi)Population : Growth, distribution, density; Tribal population and their distribution.Problems of Tribes and Tribal development Plans; their customs,rituals,festivals etc
(xxvii)Industrial and urban development. Major industries-Iron, Steel and Cement; industries,
(xxviiI)Pattern of urban settlement and Pollution Problems

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