Resistance to Colonial Rule; Peasant; Tribal and Cultural Renaissance

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Civil Rebellions and Tribal Uprisings The backbone of the rebellions, their mass base and striking power came from the rack-rented peasants, ruined artisans and demobilized soldiers CAUSES The major cause of the civil rebellions was the rapid changes the British introduced in the economy, administration and land revenue system. The revenues were enhanced by increasing taxes. Thousands of zamindars and poligars lost control over their land and its revenue either due to the extinction of their rights by the colonial state or by the forced sale of their rights over land because of their inability to meet the exorbitant land revenue demanded.

Wahabi Shah Abdul Aziz & Saiyed Ahmad Raebarelvi. Objective was to reform the Muslim
Movement society& convert ‘Dur-ul-Harb’ (Non-Islamic community) into ‘Dar-ul-Islam’.
Origianlly the movement was started in Arabia by Muhammad Ibn-Aba-e-Wahid.
Its main centre was Patna, Sittana (NW province).
Kuka Bhai Ram Singh (Disciple of Bhai Balak Singh). It is also called Namdhari Mission.
Movement Bhai Ram Singh asked his followers to worship cow & run langars, wear white clothes
& not use any foreign commodity or service. Bhai Ram Singh was deported to Burma.
Santhal Siddhu, Khanhu, Chand & Bhareo (four sons of Chulu Santhal of Raj Mahal district).
Rebellion Under the Permanent Settlement of 1793 the lands of Santhal passed to Zamidars &
1855-56 later to European Indigo planters. 10,000 santhals were killed in this rebellion. After
this the area was put under the direct control of the Governor General & was named
Santhal Paragana.

Vasudeo Balwant Phadke was born in Maharashtra. He left the army & became a revolutionary. Later deported to Aden & died in 1883. He may be justly called the father of militant nationalism in India.

 

Kisan Launched by Lala Lajpat Rai & Ajit Singh. The passing of the 1906 Punjab Land
Movements Revenue Act & heavy increase in water tax caused panic. The poem of Banke Dayal,
‘Pagri Sambhal O Jatta’ became famous. Lala & Ajit Singh were sentenced to 6 months
prison. Later the DSP of Layalpur Clough was assassinated. Ajit Singh escaped to
France while Bhai Parmanand’s house search yielded a book on bomb making.
Moplah Khilafat movement in Malabar incited communal feelings in Muslim peasants directed
Rebellion towards Hindu land holders.

 

 

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