An overview of Education in Jharkhand

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Jharkhand is one of the most educationally backward states in India. With a total of 21,386 schools for 32,620 villages, on an average only 65 % of villages in Jharkhand have a school. In a typical Jharkhand villages, there are around 10-12 tolas(habitation) and the distance between the tolas is sometimes more than 5 km. This indicates the difficulty in access faced by children Jharkhand.

Number of literates to total population

Persons                         11,970,177

Males                            7,759,966

Females                            4, 29, 21

Percentage of literates to total population

Persons                               54.13

Males                                   67.94%

Female                                  39.38%

Jharkhand has three good universities and 131 colleges under it that offer various facilities in the field of education. Besides, there are a number of good technical institutions that provided better facility in the faculty like law, medical, engineering, technology, management etc.

Universities

Ranchi university, Ranchi

Siddhlu kanhu university, Dumka

Binova bhave university, Hazaribagh

Birsa Agricultural university, Ranchi

I.T Mesra Deemed university, Ranchi

Colleges

law Colleges:

Rajendra law Colleges, Hazaribagh

Chotanagpur law Colleges, Ranchi

Agiicultural / Forest Vniversity / College

Birsa Agriculture University Kanke Ranchi

Faculty of Forestry Sciences Kanke Ranchi

Engineering Colleges

Birsa Institute of Technology. Sindri, Dhanbad

Indian School of Mines. Dhanbad

Birla Institute of Technology. Mesra

Faculty of Agriculture Engineering. Kanke

Regional Institute of Technology. Jamshedpur

Medical Colleges / Institutions

Patliputra Medical Colleges. Dhanbad

Rajendra Medical College. Ranchi

Hospital for Mental Diseases. Kanke

MGM Medical College. Jamshedpur

Ranchi Veterinary College, Kanke

Jharkhand Veterinary College, Kanke

Volerinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Kanke

College of Nursing. Rajendra Medical College and Hospital, Ranchi

Yogda Satsang Homeopathic College. Ranchi

Homeopathic College and Hospital. Mihijam

Research Institutions:

National Metallurgical Laboratory. Jamshedpur

Central Mining Research Institute. Dhanbad

Indian Lac Research Institute. Namkum

Central Institute of Psychiatry. Kanke

Research and Development Centre for Iron and Steel. Ranchi

There are number of good Educational and Technical Institutions in the state:

Educational and Technical Institutions:

Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra. Ranchi

Regional Institute of Technology. Jamshedpur

Bihar Institute of Technology. Sindri

Indian School of Mines. Dhanbad

National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology, Ranchi

Jamshedpur

Ranchi

Medical Colleges

M G M Medical College. Jamshedpur

Patliputra Medical College. Dhanbad

Rajcndra Medical College. Bariatu

Homeopathic Colleges

Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital. Dhumka

Singhbhum Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Jamshedpur

In 1998, a society called SPEED (State Programmed for Elementary Educational Development) was formed to implement Janshala in Bihar. On 31 March 2001. The programmed came under Jharkhand, as both districts in which, the programme was operational had become part of the new state At present, the programme is implemented by Jharkhand Education Programme Council (JEPC). Ranchi.

The programme has been implemented tn three phases. In the first phase, from 1998 to 1999, two blocks of both Giridith and Deoghar districts were covered. In the second phase, from 1999 to 2000, three more blocks of both districts were added. In the current phase, the programme is operational in all 7 blocks of Deoghar and 12 blocks of Giridih. Since 2001, the reach of the programme has been extended to cover all blocks of these districts. Access to schools is a severe  problem in both the districts, where large numbers of children are out of school and working. In Giridith, only 66 % of the villages have access to  primary schools.

 

An important feature of Janshala in Jharkhand  is  that it is working  within     the existing educational structure of the state. At the same time, community empowerment has been the main strength of the programme. Other main features include capacity building of teachers and women’s participation and empowerment.

 

Community empowerment 

From the very beginning. Janshala functionaries realised that the only way to effect any sustainable improvement in the quality of education was to bring the community closer to the school system. this      was achieved through community sensttisation and mobilisation, community participation and     support, and community ownership and sustainability.

Systematic activities were carried out to achieve the first stage of  community empowerment. As a first step, a community sensitisation and mobilisation ream (CSMT) was formed for generating  awareness      and community  involvement in the management of schools.

The blocks were entrusted with the task of identifying the mobilising  groups and NGOs to participate in a workshop. Individual or voluntary groups  interested in mobilising and sensitising the community were also invited to attend the workshop.

A Community   Sensitisation and Mobilisation Exercise   (CSME) was  conceptualised as a 20-day  module with two aspects-environment  building  and forming and training of village committees. The CSMT conducted field  visits. With the help  of local youths called Uthpreraks. they conducted  awareness campaigns through posters, banners, distribution of pamphlets, padyatras. streetplays, folk music and puppet shows; and meetings and conferences at all levels,  involving government officials and NGOs.

In  the third stage, the Uthpreraks collected detailed data from every village  and conducted a school mapping exercise to obtain a rough estimate of the educational status of the particular village or tola. The data was recorded and tabulated, and is now available in the form of the micro-planning report.

Subsequently, the CSMT. with the help of the Uthpreraks. invited people in the “feeding  area” of every government school for a meeting and elected a 15-member  village education committee (VEC).

In villages where access to schools was difficult. Prerak Dals (motivating  groups) were formed,  who took the initiative to provide alternative schooling facilities. An essential qualification to become a VEC member is regular attendance of the member’s  child. The VEC is headed by a chairperson and vicechairperson, elected with the consensus of VEC members. One-third of  the members are women.

Selected VEC members are given training by the C SM  ? the training has  an in-depth focus on effective planning with regard to enrolment  retention, maintenance of schools, school management, and other issues regarding  education.

The social mobilisation campaign took a very long time to complete, but  the dividends have been invaluable. Effective CSM exercise has provided an  ideal platform for the functionaries to move to the second stage of community  empowerment, i.e  community participation and support.

 

Community Participation

After the completion of the first stage, the community became involved  in all school activities, thereby extending its support to fulfil the various needs of the school.

Besides a committee at the school level,  two other committees, one at the panchayat level and another at the block level, have been set up to increase  community participation  and ensure its proper representation at every level. These committees are  the Panchayat Education Committee (PEC |. comprising  one member elected from every VEC of the particular panchayat, and the  Block Education Committee (BEC), formed by selecting one member from every panchayat in a block The VEC holds monthly  meetings presided over by the  chairman to review the progress of the school, as well as to formulate plans for its advancement. The  PEC also holds monthly meetings, while the BEC meetings are held every  quarter.

Teachers have also been posted as resource persons (RPs) at the district  and block levels to facilitate community empowerment. They organize awareness programmes, give further training if needed and hold meetings with government education officers to discuss problems related to their schools.

The VEC  is given a grant of Rs 3000 per annum for school improvement The basic purpose of giving  annual funds to the VEC is to empower and motivate them and to instill in them a sense of responsibility, as well as association, with  the school.

Community ownership and sustainability

During this phase, the community members visit  the schools for overall  inspection, as well as to ensure that both teachers and students attend school regularly. They also help in bringing out-of-school children back to the school as well as track down absentees; provide  support in the form of “physical labour” such as cleaning the schools, maintaining the gardens, constructing  approach roads to the schools, painting the schools,etc.

Community members also donate material for construction and repair of  classrooms as well as other articles which can be utilised in the school.

 Quality improvement in schools   

Teachers’ training

Training is one of the most critical means of empowering teachers. Prior  to  Janshala. instances of primary school teachers being given in-service training  were rare. This not only affected the quality of teaching adversely, but also lowered the motivation level and involvement of teachers. Janshala adapted the UJALA  training module developed under the Bihar Education Project (BEP).                                                          Almost the entire target teacher population-2470  primary school teachers—was   administered training.                  As a result of these efforts, approximately. 88 per cent of teachers in Deoghar district have been trained. The training  module focuses on increasing community contact, training in gender-sensitive  teaching methods, developing communication skills and effective use of teaching aids. The module follows the interactive methodology, ensuring  active participation of  all teachers  Some of the important aspects stressed in these modules are activity-based  approach, teaching-learning materials (TLMs), and multi- grade and multilevel teaching.                                                                                                                                                         Teachers are trained to follow the activity-based  approach. They are also  taught to make the learning environment interesting through activities, which  help the child find joy and meaning in the learning process. The teachers are trained to design learning activities to correspond with the child’s developmental stages.

Teacher Training  Centres

Teachers are trained at  three teacher training  centers, two at Deoghar  and  one at Giridih. Established primarily to train teachers from the project schools, these centers at times also provide training to teachers of community-based  schools (CBS) and women community workers(WCW). As part of this exercise, teachers who had the talent to train were selected. Thereafter, a workshop  was conducted to screen suitable and appropriate Master Trainers (MTs) from the  group. The MTs conduct further                              training at the BRCs. So far. 12- 15 MTs have been selected from each district.

Teaching-learning Material

Teachers often use representative  teaching-learning materials called TLM  to illustrate new words,  as well as abstract relationships and concepts. Teachers are provided a sum of Rs 500 to buy materials to make TLMs. This serves as a motivating factor for teachers and also helps to make the learning process  joyful and interesting  Teachers arc given special training in understanding  the various uses of TLM and its importance in the learning process.

 

Cluster Resource Centres

In order to ensure that teachers get enough opportunity to share and reflect upon their experiences. Cluster Resource Centres (CRCs) have been constituted at various sub-block levels. Regular monthly experience-sharing  meetings are held at these centres. These meetings facilitate the process of planning classroom activities, identifying classroom problems and exploring possible solutions in a participative manner. At times these monthly meetings also serve as refresher training  programmes for teachers.

Some of the activities that take place during the monthly meeting of  teachers at the Cluster Education Centres (CECs) are lesson demonstrations, planning of activities. TLM  preparation,discussions on problem areas  identified by the teachers, etc. At times, issues like shortage of teachers and  interaction with parents and VECs.

In every training programme, efforts are made to invite teachers from  adjoining schools so as to encourage them to keep in touch after completion of their training programme, and to form a cluster. In a training session, approximately 30-35 teachers from 8-12 schools are  invited. Close interaction during the residential training programme ensures that a strong cluster is  formed. A Cluster Coordinator is selected from amongst  the  group and regular cluster meetings are held at the Cluster Education Centre every month. These meetings are also attended by the RP and BRC. Every  two months, field visits  are conducted by the RP along with the CRC. CEC coordinators are given fiveday training by the RPs at the block level, with modules on leadership, motivation as well as various aspects of pedagogy.

Improving Access

Micro-planning revealed that there were several habitations without  school within a radius of one km. Moreover, certain habitations had a primary  school within this radius, but  were still not accessible to children because of. physical  and social barriers. Community-based schools are an important  initiative to improve  children’s  access to

Primary  schools.

Community-based  schools

Community-based schools (CBSs) and alternative schools were suggested  to tackle the problem of inaccessibility. The most important aspect of these  schools is the manner in which they are                         established and the manner in which they function, all with the active involvement  and participation of the community. Over 400 CBSs with 2300 children (an average of40-50 children per school), have been opened under the programmes in the two districts of  Jharkhand. CBSs provide the opportunity of quality  education to a large number of disadvantaged children in remote areas. Around 90% of the  students enrolled in CBSs would not have had access to education, but for  this programme.

The activities of the community mobilisation team also included the  formation of Prerak Dais (motivating groups) in unserved habitations, to generate demand in the community through mobilisation exercises. Over a  period of time,  as the role of the Prerak Dais grew, they were redesignated as  Sahyog Dais (companions). Initiatives were also taken to form women’s group, which primarily included mothers whose children did not attend schools. These women’s groups,  called Mata Samitis (mothers’ committees)  were given  the responsibility of initiating and managing CBSs.

There are now around 500 Mata Samitis in Deoghar  and Giridih. The samiti  members are trained by Resource Persons and Women Empowerment  Workers (WCWs). before  they are  entrusted the task of managing a school. The training creates awareness about the main issues in education, the importance and the process through which village members are to be initiated into the functioning of  the schools, steps involved in opening a bank account, and most importantly the need to uphold  a  sense  of gender equality Around 55  percent  of the Mata Samiti members in Deoghar have received  formal training and others have obtained guidance and support from WCWs. Moreover, each school is also given a grant of Rs 4100. and the chairman of  the Mata Samiti or Sahyog Dais  is responsible for using this  money.

Teachers in CBS

The minimum qualification of a CBS teacher  is matriculation, and females  are preferred,  so as to promote education among  girls. However,  the criteria  are flexible. The teachers are given residential training of 30 days. During  the first  15 days, theoretical background in subjects such as education, child development, women’s empowerment and girl’s education is taught. During  the subsequent days,  they are trained in new teaching methods The teachers  have monthly meetings with  the District Resource Person (DRP) and Block  Resource Person (BRP)  to plan their teaching schedule and share their problems and experiences.

Children in CBS

Most CBS schools are single-classroom, single-teacher  schools with  children of different  age groups. Therefore,  multi-grade,  multi-level teaching  is a necessity. The children are assessed in many different ways throughout   the academic year and teaching is  joyful and activity based.  The schools provide an environment which encourages self- expression  in children in different ways like articulating            representing their ideas, illustrating  the lessons with examples, clarifying  their doubts with the teacher without  any apprehension or hesitation and so.    Learning is completely  child- oriented.                                         Women’s omen’s empower empowerment ment  to enhance the status of women, the Women’s empowerment  Programme has ensured that at least one Uthprerak  out of two. in each habitation,   a woman. Rules have been  formulated to ensure that  at least one-third of VEC members are women. It has  also been  made mandatory that  the office of either the chairman or vicechairman should be held by a woman candidate.

The constitution of Mata Samitis has also proved to be successful in helping women come together to serve as a unit for action. Their ability to conduct tasks like running a school, holding a bank account,                         professionally  interacting with men. Has  given them the needed impetus and selfesteem  for  further empowerment.

The representation of women as RPs. both at the district  and block levels. as well as preference given to women teachers in CBSs, has helped in enhancing  the status of women in the state. Self-help groups (SHGs) are women’s groups formed with the help of  WCWs  to address the problem of economic hardship. SHGs aim to address issues of social and economic reform. In Deoghar these groups function with  the  help of a president  and a secretary However, the SHGs are in the initial stages of development. They function as small banks for the community, lending people money at very low interest rates and providing loans to start  small-scale businesses. Around 50 SHGs managed by various NGOs function  efficiently in Giridih.  These groups, although not under the direct supervision of Janshala. work in close association with WCWs.

 

Girls/Female  Education

Owing to the  poor female literacy rates, girls’ education has been given  primary  importance in Janshala. Meena Week is one of the main programmes  conducted, along with door-to- door campaigns, to promote female education.

Meena week                 

This is a weeklong celebration conducted every year, to generate  awareness about the importance  of girls’ education. The spirit of festivity makes  it an attractive programme for villagers. “Meena”  is an animation  character and represents an ordinary village girl who stands up for her rights and is bold enough to question the inequalities and discrimination  faced by  girls. During  Meena Week,  panchayat meetings  to discuss the importance of  girls’ education,  as well as painting competitions with themes on girls’ education,  are organised. Bal  Sabhas are held, wherein out-of-school  and in-school children exchange views and share their experiences. It has been seen that  many  out-ofschool  children are fascinated and motivated by the experiences  of in-school children and  frequently  express their desire to get enrolled in  school. Such children are enrolled immediately.

Padyatra   and rallies are conducted by the children, teachers and  the  community. Video shows on “Meena” and other films on themes like dowry, child marriage, harassment of women, female illiteracy, etc.. are held and bal  melas  are organised with stalls for game, health check- ups, singing competition, dancing competitions, etc. In these melas  too. children are  enrolled. At the last Meena Week in Deoghar district. 173 girls, most of them child labourers who made beedis, were enrolled in nearby schools.

Education for Women

Education, which is proved as a major explanatory factor for the  development,  is very much unfavorable for Jharkhand tribal women. The  disadvantage index for literacy among the tribal women of Jharkhand is higher  than all India i.e. 193 and 180 respectively.

A huge gap has been noticed in educational attainment between tribal  and general women in Jharkhand. Eighty-nine percent of tribal women are  illiterate compared to 46 percent in general women. Educational level of high school and above also shows more than eight fold gap between both group. Only 2.6 percent tribal women have completed high school and above  compared  to 21 percent general women. Not only tribal  women are illiterate  themselves, but also their husband’s educational status is very much poor. Sixty-two percent of tribal women’s husbands are illiterate compared to 23  percent among general women Mass media, which plays an important role in development and utilization  of services, in this key indicator also tribal women are very  less exposed. Eighty-eight percent tribal women  have not been exposed to any media  compared to 44 percent among general women

Major Universities in Jharkhand

 

Universities

Birsa  Agricultural University

Birla  Institute of Technology

Indian School of Mines

Ranchi   University

Siddhu Kanhu   University

Vinoba Bhave    University

Birsa Agricultural University; (Estd. 1980) Kanke Ranchi; Jurisdiction : Jurisdiction of the univ extends to whole of Jharkhand covering 22 Districts of the state. The Univ. has 3 constituent Colleges, besides a number of research substations. Students Enrolment (2000-2001) 222 (Men 168, Women 54). Courses of Study; FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE; BSc (Agri). M. Sc (Agril); FACULTY OF FORESTRY; B. Sc (Forestry); M. Sc. (Forestry); FACULTY OF VETERINARY SCIENCE; BVSc and AH. MVSc; Doctorate Degrees; departments of Agronomy, Soil Science. Plant Breeding and Genetics.Horticulture. Mycology and Plant Pathology and Anatomy. Pharmacology. Animal Breeding and Genetics, Parasitology, Medicine. Microbiology, Surgery. Vety Public Health and Epidemics. Pathology, Animal Nutrition. Gynae-cology and Obst, Animal Physiology. Diploma; 2 yr. diploma in Forestry after inter (Sc) with Phy, Chem, Biol/Maths.

Birla Institute of Technology ; (Deemed University); (Estd.1955); Mesra, Ranchi; Courses of Study: Undergraduate Programmes, BE; B. Pharm; BArch;BCA; BBA; Postgraduate Programmes: MBA, MCA, DCA, MSc (Information Sc); MSc (Bio-Med Instrumentation); ME (Software Engg), M. Tech (Comp Sc), M. Sc (Electronics and Tele Comm), M. Sc (Information Technology); Doctorate Degree: PhD Research facilities leading to PhD degree are available in all departments. Diplomas : Postgraduate Diploma in Comp. Application to graduates with Maths’Stat having 55% marks, of 1 year, (FT) duration. Candidates should have I year standing for part-time Courses. Selection through entrance exam.

Indian School of Mines (Deemed Lnviersity); (Esld.1967); Dhanbad; Students Enrolment (2000-2001) 584 (Men -552, Women – 32); COURSES OF STUDY : BTech Branches : Computer Science and Engg; Electronics and Instrumentation; Mineral Engg; Mining Engg; Mechanical Engg; Petroleum Engg. MSc (Tech) (Earth Sc), MTech. Branches Drilling Engg, Fuel Engg, Maintenance Engg and Tribol, Mineral Engg, Mine planning and Des, Opencast Mining. Longwall Mine Mechanisation, Indl Engg and Mgt. Petroleum Engg. Comp App.

Environmental Sc and Engg. MBA; Research Degree: 1 yr MPhil course in App Geol, App Geophy. App Maths. App Chem; DOCTORATE DEGREE PhD The School awards PhD degree in the deptts of App Geol, App Geophy. Mining. Petroleum Engg, App Phy, App Maths .App Chem. Mining Machinery, Management Studies. Mineral Engg. Fuel Engg. Drilling Engg and Electronics. Eligibility Master’s degree holders in the branch concerned can supplicate for the degree. Candidates with Bachelor’s degree in Petroleum or Mining Engg or equivalent can also register Candidates should have obtained II Cl in a relevant field in the qualifying exam. Duration 2 years (minimum) and 7 yrs (maximum).

Ranchi University; (Estd; l960);Ranchi Jurisdiction; The jurisdiction of the univ extends to South Chotanagpur Division consisting of districts of Ranchi, Gumla, lohardaga. Palamau and Singhbhum. The area of North Chotanagpur Division (earlier under the Ranchi University) comprising districts of Hazanbag, Chatra, Koderma, Bokaro, Giridih and Dhanbad has been transferred to Vinoba Bhave University w.e.f. 17 September 1992. Enrolment 90,000 (Approx); Courses of Study : FACULTY OF ARTS; BA, BA (Hons); MA; FACULTY OF COMMERCE; BCom, BCom(Hons). MCom; FACULTY OF EDUCATION: BEd; MEd; FACULTY OF ENGINEERING; BSc (Engg); MSc (Engg); BTech (Manufacturing Engg); MTech (Mgt Engg. Foundry-Farge Tech), MTech; MTech (PT); MCA; FACULTY OF LAW, LLB; FACULTY OF MEDICINE: MBBS; MD. MS. MD(Psychiatry); BSC Nursing Post Certificate; FACULTY OF SCIENCE: BSc. BSc (Hons); MSc; Research Degree : MPhil; Doctorate Degree : The univ awards PhD degree in the Faculties of Arts, Science, Education, Commerce, Law, Medicine and Engg. There is also a provision of awarding DLitt and DSc Degrees. Diplomas ,and Certificates: 2 yrs PG Diplomas Home Sc; Journalism Medical and Social Psy after degree in Psy; Psychiatric Social Work after Master Degree in Anthro/ Psy/Sociol; Psychological Med after MBBS. 1 year Dip in Psychiatric Nursing(DPN)after Dip in Gen Nursing or A Grade Cert. 2 yr Certificate in German after Jr Dip in the Lang, Med Dips DA. DCH,DCP, DGO,DLO, DMRD, DO, DTM and H Dorth. DO, DMRT after MBBS. 10 Months Post Dip in Nursing Edn and Admn and Public Health Nursing.

Siddhu Kanhu University; (Estd. 1992); Dumka; Jurisdiction: The territorial jurisdiction of the university extends over Santal Pargans Divisions of Jharkhand comprising 6 districts – Dumka, Deoghar. Godda, Sahibganj, Pakur.  EDUCATION

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