Medieval India

       
      North India      
Ghadvalas     Chandradeva*. Jaichandra fought Muhammad Ghur
Chandellas of Jejakabhukti/Bundelkhand   *Vidyadhara* & Yashovarman  
Paramaras of Malwa   Vakpati Munjal & *Bhoja*  
Chahamanas/Chauhans of Sakambhari   Vigraharaja IV Visaladeva, *Prithviraj III* (Chauhan)
Kalachuris of Tripuri   Kokalla, Gangeyadeva & *Karna* (Rajshekhara)
Chalukyas/Solankis of Gujarat   Bhima I & *Jayasimha Siddharaja*  
Kashmir     Avantivarman (supplanted Karkota dynasty to which
      belonged Lalitaditya Muktapida.  
  East & the North East      
Bengal (Sena dynasty)   Lakshmanasena (last Hindu ruler of Bengal)
Orissa     Avantavarman Chodaganga (Mother daughter of Rajendra
      Chola) of Eastern Gangas & Narsimha I (sun temple)
Assam (Ahoms)   Ahoms, a Shan tribe settled in mid 13th Century.
  Deccan & the South      
Chalukyas of Kalyani   *Vikramaditya VI* (Introduced Chalukya-Vikram era)
      Bilhana’s Vikramanankadevacharita is based on him
Yadavas of Devagiri   Bhillama V*, *Simhana*  
Kakatiyas of Warangal   Ganapati (ruled for 60 years)  
Cholas     Vijayalaya*, Rajaraja the Great, *Rajendra I*, Rajadhiraja,
      Rajendra II, Kulottunga I  
Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra   Nrpakama*, Vishnuvardhan, Ballala II & Ballala III
Pandyas     *Jatavarman Sundara.Pandya I*  
  Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526 AD)  
Slave Dynasty     Sayyid Dynasty  
1206-10 Qutubuddin Aibak.     1412-20   Khizr Khan
1210-36 Shamsuddin Iltutmish     1420-33   Mubarak Shah
1237-41 Razia Sultana     1433-43   Muhammad Shah
1241-46 Bahram Shah & Masud Shah 1443-51   Alauddin Alam Shah
1246-66 Nasirruddin Mahmud     Lodhi Dynasty  
1266-86 Balban     1451-89   Bahlul Lodhi
1286-90 Kaikhusrau, Kaiquabad & Kaimur 1489-1517   Sikander Lodhi
Khalji Dynasty     1517-26   Ibrahim Lodhi
1290-96 Jallaluddin Khalji          
1296-1316 Allauddin Khalji          
1316-20 Mubarak Shah & Khusrau khan      
Tughlaq Dynasty          
1320-25 Ghiasuddin Tughlaq          
1325-51 Muhammad bin Tughlaq          
1351-88 Firuz Shah Tughlaq          
1388-94 Mohammad Khan, Ghiasuddin Tughlaq Shah II,      
  Abu Baqr, Nasiruddin Muhammad, Humayun      
1394-12 Nasirrudin Mahmud Tughlaq      

 

    Delhi Sultanate      
Slave Qutbuddin Died while playing Chaugan. Aram Shah (short period)  
  Aibak          
  Shamsuddin He defeated Yalduz of Ghazni & Qubacha of Multan. Captured the
  Iltutmish fort  of  Ranthambor,  Lakhnauti.  Organized  the  iqta  system  (land
    assignment) & currency (introduced copper tanka & silver jital).
  Razia Sultana Married  Malik  Altunia  (Governor  of  Bhatinda).  Turkish  Aamirs
    played  the dominant  role  &  after Razia,  they enthroned  Bahram
    Shah, Masud Shah & Nasiruddin Mahmud in that order.  
  Balban (Ulugh Balban  was  Turkish  slave  of  Iltutmish.  He  poisoned  his  master
  Khan) Nasiruddin Mahmud. Killed the rebel governor of Bengal, Tughril
    Khan.  He  revived  the  practice  of  sijda  (prostration)  &  paibos
    (kissing monarch’s feet).      
    Kaikhusrau, Kaiquabad & Kaimurs had short duration.  
Khalji Jalaluddin Khalji Descended at the age of seventy. Later Alauddin murdered his uncle
    & father in law Jalaluddin & seized the throne.  
  Alauddin Khalji Lay  seige  to  Ranthambor  which  was  under  redoubtable  Hammir
    Deva  which  continued  till  one  year.  Later  Chittor  under  Ratan
    Singh (wife Padmini) fell & was renamed Kizhrabad. Malik Kafur
    campaigned against Kaktiyas (Warangal), Hoysalas
    (Dwarasamudra) & Pandyas. Mubarak Shah (son) & Khusrau khan
    had short rule.        
    Kharaj  (land  tax  –  50%),  Charai,  Gharii  (dwelling  tax).  First  to
    introduce permanent standing army, dagh &   chehra. Afghans &
    Sultan’s Indian officers rose to prominence.  
Tughlaq Ghiyasuddin Earlier called Ghazi Malik. Ghiasuddin had repelled mongol attack
  Tughlaq under khaljis before ascending throne. Attaked Kaktiyas & Bengal
    succesfully. Founded third city of Delhi – Tughlaqabad.  
  Muhammad bin Open consorting with Hindus & Jogis. Killed Ulemas, qazis who
  Tughlaq rose in rebellion. Shifted capital to Devagiri (renamed Daulatabad),
    token currency (bronze coin-jittal). Shifted to Swargadwari during
    famine. At his death Barani commented, ‘at last the people got rid
    of him & he got rid of the people’. First sultan to visit the shrine of
    Moinuddin Chisti. Disciple of Shaikh Alauddin & Jinaprabha Suri.
  Firuz Shah Not a military leader. Conqured Thatta, Orissa (uprooted Jagannath
  Tughlaq idol),  Nagarkot.  Distributed  iqtas, made  them heritable increased
    salaries.   Founded   Fatehabad,   Hissar,   Firuzpur,   Jaunpur   &
    Firuzabad. Built canals. Influence of Ulema revived. First muslim
    ruler to impose Jaziya on Brahmins but abolished Ghari & Charai.
    Visited  the  shrine  of  Salar  Masud  Ghazi  &  became  fanatical.
    Removed   paintings   from   palace.   Got   many   sanskirt   works
    translated in Persian      

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    South India
Vijaynagar Harihara & These brothers were released by Muhammad Tughlaq & they laid
  Bukka the foundation of Vijaynagar empire (Sangama dynasty)
  Deva Raya I Succeded  his  father  Harihara  II.  Lead  a  crushing  defeat  against
    Sultan  Firuz  Shah  Bahmani.  Constuction  of  dam  across  the
    Tungabhadra. Italian, Nicolo de Conti came during his period.
  Deva Raya II Sometimes called Immadi Deva Raya. One of the greatest Sultan.
Bahamani Firuz Shah Great king. Lost to Deva Raya I & abdicated throne in favour of his
  Bahman brother Ahmad Shah I who transferred Bahmani Kingdom capital
    from  Gulbarga  to  Bidar.  Later  with  the  help  of  Iranian  prime
    minister Mahmud Gawan, Ahmad Shah I expanded considerably.
    Later Bhahmani kingdom got divied into five regions – Golconda,
    Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Berar & Bidar.
Tuluva *Kishna Deva After Deva Raya II came Suluva dyansty, which was replaced by
  Raya* Tuluva dynasty whose geatest ruler was Krishna Deva Raya. Ablest
    of Vijaynagar soverigns. After him Rama Raja succeded.
    Delhi Sultanate Continued
Timur Timur 1398 AD During the reign of Mahmud Tughlaq who fled the city. He
Invastion   assigned Delhi to Khizr Khan & hence Sayyid dynasty was born.
Sayyids Khizr Khan Khizr Khan’s reign as well as that of his successors, Mubarak Shah,
    Muhammad Shah & Alauddin Alam Shah was spent trying to
    control the rebellious leaders (esp. Khokhars led by Jasrath).
Lodis Bahlul Lodi First dynasty to be headed by Afghans. Principal event of Bahlul
    Lodi’s life was the annexation of Juanpur kingdom.
  Sikander Lodi Contemporary of Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat & Rana Sanga of
    Mewar. The rent rolls of his reign formed the basis during Sher
    Shah Suri period. Imposed the Jaziya. The Bahluli coin remained in
    circulation till Akbar’s rule. He was the only sultan to be killed in
    the battle field.
    Smaller States
Assam Ahoms – Greatest ruler during this peiod was Suhungmung
Gujarat Muzaffar’s Shah grandson, Ahmad Shah I founded new capital Ahmedabad. Was the
  first sultan to levy Jaziya on hindus of Gujarat. *Mahmud Begarha* was the greatest
Mewar Rana Kumbha. His grandson was Rana Sanga.
Amber Under Prithviraj who fought under Rana Sanga at Khanua
Jaunpur Under Sharquis. Jaunpur is in eastern U.P.
Kashmir *Zianul Abidin*. Abolished Jaziya. Got Ramayana & Mahabharata translated into
  Persian. Allowed Kashmiri pandits to return to the state.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Mughal Empire
Babur Zahiruddin  Muhammad  Babur.  Ascended  throne  of  Farghana.  Daulat  Khan  Lodi,
1526-30 govenror of Punjab invited him to dethrone Ibrahim Lodi but later retracted. Ibrahim Lodi
  perished in 1526 at Panipat. Battle of Khanua in 1527 against Rana Sanga in which Babur
  won by effective use of artillery & mounted archers. Died around 1529 & burried at
  Kabul. Introduced Char Bagh (symmetric gardens).
Himayun His early fight was with Bahadur Shah of Gujarat whom he defeated but did not depose.
1530-56 In  Bihar  the  Afghans  rallied  under  Sher  Shah  Suri.  At  the  battle  of  Chausa  in  1939
  Himayun was defeated by Sher Shah. He finally left India in 1544 for the Safavid court. A
  decade after the death of Sher Shah, Himayun occupied back Delhi but died within seven
  months after a fall from the steps of his library.
Sher Shah Son of a small Jagirdar from Jaunpur. Defeated Raja Maldeo of Marwar in the battle of
1540-45 Samel in 1544 & also won Chittor. He realized Jaziya from Hindus. Revived system of
  Dagh & Chehra. Introduced a system of crop rates form the first time. Introduced uniform
  standard gold, silver & copper coins replacing the debased coins & introduced uniform
  weights. Maintained army through Sawars. Died in 1545 (5 years rule).
Akbar Born  in  Amarkot.  Bairam  Khan  invited  Hemu  (Afhan  assumed  title  of  Hemchandra
1556-1605 Vikramaditya) in 1556 at the second battle of Panipat in which Hemu was slained. Later
  Akbar discharged Bairam Khan & married his widow. Akbar’s foster mothers son Adam
  Khan  won  Malwa  defeating  Baz  Bahadur.  Won  at  Gondwana,  Chittor  (Udai  Sing),
  Ranthambor & Marwar. Rana Pratap ascended Mewar after the death of Udai Singh. In
  1576 the Haldi ghati war between Man Singh (grandson of Bhara Mal of Amber who
  entered imperial services) & Rana Pratap. In 1571 Akbar shifted his capital to Fatehpur
  Sikri.  Later  marched  against  Ahmedabad,  Kabul  (deposed  Mirza  Hakim).  In  1585  he
  trasnferred his capital to Lahore. Later won Baluchistan, Qandhar, Ahmadnagar (Chand
  Bibi), Khandesh (Akbar’s last major miliary campaign). In 1579 he abolished Jaziya. He
  issued Mahzar which entitle him to choose one of the interpretations of Muslim law. Only
  Raja Birbal accepted Din-i-Ilahi. Todar Mal, Bhagwan das, Man Singh declined it. He
  abolished the position of wazir after Bairam khan. Revived chehra & dagh.
Jehangir Jehangir’s elder brother Khusrau revolted thrice against Akbar & was blinded. He became
1605-27 the  first  ruler  to  conquer  Kangra.  Amar  Singh,  Son  of  Rana  Pratap  at  Ajmer  also
  surrendered. The Persians got control of Qandhar back in their second attempt. Deccan
  (ruled by Malik Ambar of Ahmadnagar) was subdued again by prince Khurram. Jehangir
  ordered the murder of fifth sikh guru Arjun Dev (the first to be murdered by Mughals).
  Visited dargah of Moinuddin Chisti several times. Married Iranian widow (Mehrunisa),
  who was given the title Nur Jahan.  Nur Jahan’s brother was Asaf khan whose daughter
  Mumtaz Mahal (Arjumand Banu) was married to Shah Jahan.
Shah Sent his two sons Dara  Shukoh& Aurangzeb as hostages to his fathers court. He was
Jahan helped in his throne capture by his father in law, Asaf Khan. Ordered execution of his
1628-58 brothers  &  their  sons  after  accession.  Increased  control  over  Bundelkhand  (Ruled  by
  Jehangir’s hard core friend Bir Singh Deo’s son Jujhar Singh). Qandhar was capture for a
  brief period but lost back to the Safavids. His Peacock throne & capital Shahjahanabad are
  remembered. Reformed the zat & sawar system. Iranis & Turanis dominated the nobility.
  Instituted month scales on the basis of difference between official estimate of income
  (Jama) & actual amount collected (hasil).
Aurangzeb War of succession between Dara, Shah Shuja, Auranzeb & Murad – all sons of Mumtaz
1658-1707 Mahal. Mir Jumla was deputed by Aurangzeb to restore authority in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.
  Later in Assam Ahom king agreed to be a vassal of Mughals. He banned Nauroz, the

 

Persian new year, banned painters, musicians, drinking & women pilgrimage. Pilgrimage tax on Hindu abolished by Akbar reinstated. Destroyed the Keshava Rai Temple at Mathura built by Bir Singh Bundela.Reimposed Jaziya tax. His son prince Akbar revolted

 

  • was sheltered by Maratha ruler Sambhaji. Aurangzeb lay seize on Bijapur & Golconda

 

  • He was also known as Alamgir.

 

Shivaji Shivaji tutor was Dadaji Kond-deva. Shivaji killed Afzal Khan (general of Ali Adil Shah
  II) while meeting. Later he almost defeated the governor of the Deccan, Shaista Khan who
  was replaced by Prince Mauzzam on orders of Aurangzeb. Raja Jai Singh was given the
  responsibility of tackling Shivaji who won & conducted the treaty of Purandhar. Later
  Shivaji visited mughal court & was captured but escaped.
Later Shivaji – Sambhaji – Rajaram (Sambhaji’s brother). In the meanwhile Sambhaji’s son
Marathas Shahu was taken to the Mughal household. Later when Rajaram died, his widow Tara Bai
  declared her four year old son Shivaji II, king & herself the regent. Later Shahu was
  released by Bahadur Shah I who appointed Balaji Vishwanath as Peshwa. Baji Rao I
  succeded  who  was  the  most  charismatic  leader  in  Maratha  history  after  Shivaji.He
  conquered Malwa, Bundelkhand & even raided Delhi. He was succeded by his son  Balaji
  Baji Rao (Nana Saheb – different from the later Nana Saheb, adopted son of Baji Rao II)
  who defeated the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Maratha however received a terrible blow at
  the hands of Ahmad Shah Abdali in 1761 at Panipat.
        Selective Treaties & Battles    
Treaty of Purandhar   Jai Singh defeated Shivaji. Shivaji had to surrender 23 out of the thirty
        five forts held by him.    
Treaty of Palkhed   Nizam of Hyderabad was forced to recognize Maratha claimsto chauth
        & sardeshmuhi in the Deccan (durin Baji Rao I’s tenure).
Treaty of Warna   Claims of Tara Bai settled by granting her Kolhapur
Treaty of Bhalke   Marathas won large parts of Khandesh by invading Karnataka.
Battle of Talikota (1565)   Between Vijayanagara Empire (Rama Raya, son of Achutya Raya) and
        Deccan sultanates, resulted in Vijayanagar’s defeat.
        Books of Medieval Period    
  1. Taj-ul-Maasir   Hasan Nizami  
  2. Tabaqat-i-Nasiri   Minhaj Siraj  
  3. Tarikh-i-Firuzshahi (Most important work of sultanate period) Ziauddin Barani  
    Fatwah-i-Jahandari      
  4. Futuh-us-Salatin (establishment of Bahmani Kingdom) Isami  
  5. Tarikh-i-Firuzshahi   Afif  
  6. Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi Yahya Sirhindi  
  7. Akbar Nama   Abul Fazal  
  8. Tabaqat-I-Akbari   Nizammudin Ahmad  
  9. Muntakhab-al-tawarikh   Badauni  
  10 Badshahnama/Padshahnama Abdul Hamid Lahori  
  11 Muntakhab-ul Lubab (Aurangzeb’s reign) Khafi Khan  
  12 Mirat-i-Ahmadi   Ali Muhammad Khan  
  13 Padmavat (on Padmini – wife of Ratan Singh, King of Chittor) Malik Mohammad Jaisi  
  14 Tughluq Nama, Tarik-i-Alai, Nuh Sipihr, Ashiqa Amir Khusro  
  15 Marwar ra Pargani ri Vigat (Info on Rajasthan) Munhta Nainsi  

 

16 Chandayan Maulana Daud
17 Himayun Nama Gulbadan Begum
18 Bhavartha Dipika Gyaneshwara
19 Safarnama or Rihla Ibn Batuta
20 Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri (Autobiography) Jehangir
21 Tarikh-i-Shershahi Abbas Sarwani
22 Tuzuk-i-Baburi/ Baburnama (in Turkish –Autobiography) Babur
23 Shahjahannama Inayat Khan
24 Dayabhaga Jimuta Vahna
25 Periya Puranam (12th book of Tamil Veda called Tirumurai) Shekkilar
26 Sur Sagar (Life of Krishna) Sur Das
27 History of Aurangzeb, The fall of the Mughal Empire Jadunath Sarkar
28 Mahmud of Ghazni Mohammad Habib
29 The Administration of the Delhi Sultanate I.H. Qureshi
30 Foundation of Muslim Rule in India A.B.M. Habibullah
31 Agrarian System of Mughal India Irfan Habib

 

Monuments of Medieval Period
College of Ajmer (Converted to Adhai din ka Jhompra) Vigraharaja IV Visaladeva
Rudra Mahakala temple, Siddhapura Jayasimha Siddharaja
Jagannath Temple at Puri Anantavarman Chodaganga
Sun Temple, Konark Narasimha I ( E. Gangas)
Brihadesvara/Rajarajeswara temple at Thanjavur Rajaraja the Great
Quwwat-al-Islam mosque, Delhi Qutbuddin Aibak
Adhai din ka Jhompra Qutbuddin Aibak
Himayun’s Tomb Akbar’s step mother Haji Begum
Tomb of Sher Shah at Sasaram Sher Shah
Agra Fort Akbar
Buland Darwarza (commemorate Gujarat victory) Akbar
Shalimar Garden Shah Jahan
Badshahi Mosque at Lahore (largest in subcontinent) Aurgangzeb
Man Mandir, Gwalior Man Singh
Hauz Khas Alauddin Khalji
Akbar’s Mausoleum at Sikandara Akbar. Completed by Jehangir.
Madrasa at Bidar Mahmud Gawan

 

    Kings & their Court Jewels
1. Lakshmansena Jayadeva, Halayudha, Sridharadasa.
2. Vikramaditya VI (Chalukya) Bilhana (Vikramanankadevacharita) Vijnanaeshvara (Mitakshara)
3. Sharqis of Jaunpur Malik Muhammad Jaisi
4. Akbar Tansen, Todar Mal, Tulsidas (just contemporary)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

          Prominent Foreign Travellers  
  1.   Marco Polo   Venetian Traveller visited Pandya kingdom  
  2.   Ibn Batuta   Muhammad bin Tughlaq  
  3.   Nicolo Conti   Italian visited Vijayanagar during the reign of Deva Raya I  
  4.   Abdur Razaq   Visited the court of Zamorin in Calicut & travelled to Vijaynagar  
            during the reign of Deva Raya II  
  5.   Nikitin     Russian, visited Bahmani kingdom & Gujarat  
  6.   Nuniz     Portuguese, stayed at Vijayanagar during Krishna Deva Raya  
  7.   Ralph Fitch   British during Akbar’s reign  
  8.   William Hawkins   English merchant. Received a mansab from Jehangir  
  9.   Thomas Roe   Ambassador of English King James I to Jehangir’s court.  
            Obtained trade concessions. Wrote “Embassy”.  
  10.   Peter Mundy   English traveller during Shah Jahan’s reign.  
  11.   Tavernier   French jweller. Aurangzeb’s reign.  
  12.   Bernier     French Physician. Most important account of all European.  
            Aurangzeb’s reign. Wrote ‘Travels in the Mughal Empire’.  
  13.   Nicolo Manucci   Italian. Aurangzeb’s reign.  
            Jargon of Medieval Period  
  Mamluk White slaves   Ur Common village assembly (Chola  period)  
  Muqaddam Village head   Nagaram Assembly of merchants (Chola  period)  
  Sondhar loans   Sabha Assembly of Brahmins (Chola  period)  
  Khots Village head   Khutba A sermon made in Friday mosque  
  Sharia Muslim law   Madad-i-Maash Tax free grants of land  
  Subas Provinces   Waqf Grants to muslim religious establishment  
  Mir Bakshi Military department   Pargana Around Hundred villages.  
  Ummah Muslim believers   Sadr us sadur Ecclesiastical affairs  
  Mir Saman Supply department   Qanungos Keeper of revenue records  
  Shiqdar Headed Pargana.   Zabt Revenue based on land measurement  
  Amils Revenue officer   Ibadat Khana House of worship (Fatehpur Sikri)  
  Hundis Bills of Exchange   Diwan Function of finance (Akbar’s time)  
  Dhimmis Non-Muslim people   Wujuhat Taxes on cattle,grazing,orchards.  
  Vimans Towers of temple   Shaikhzadas Indian Muslims nobility  
  Din   Religion   Peshwa Prime minister (Shivaji)  
  Ganj   A grain market   Amatya Revenue minister (Shivaji)  
  Gomashta Commercial agent   Sumant Foreign minister (Shivaji)  
  Hun   A gold coin   Bargir Cavalrymen (horse belonged to leader)  
  Dam   Coin (1/4th of rupee)   Nankar Portion of revenue given to Zamidar  
  Sarkar A number of Paragana   Diwan-i-Arz Ministry of Military Affairs  
  Khums Tax on plunder   Diwan-i-Insha Ministry of Royal Correspondences  
  Zawabit Non Shariat state laws   Diwan-i-Risalat Religiour affairs  
  Faujdar Incharge of Sarkar   Diwan-i-Kul Wazir or chief imperial fiscal minister.  
  Malfuzat Sayings of sufi saint   Diwan-i-Wizarat Department of finance  
  Tankah Silver coin   Khalisa Land revenue directly for imperial treasury  
  Kanqah Sufi lodging   Wilayat Spiritual territory of a sufi  
  Misl   Sikh Regions  (12)   Umra Collective term for nobility  
              Watandar Desais & Deshmukh (collective term)  

 

Extent of Mughal Empire at Akbar’s Death

Miscellaneous Facts:

 

1.Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 AD. The Quran alongwith the Hadith (sayings of the prophet) is venerated as supreme sources of authority in Islam. Muhammad’s migration from Mecca to Medina is known as Hijra & the muslim calendar commences from this year. At the battle of Badr Muhammad first wielded sword to assert his prophethood. Quibla the direction to be faced during prayer changed from Jerusalem to Mecca.

 

2.Prophet’s son-in-law Ali was regarded as lawful immediate by some section (shiis) while other group considered his close followers Abu Bakr, Umar & Uthman as legal heir (came to be known as Sunnis).

 

3.Mahmud of Ghazni was the son of Subuktigin (founder of Ghaznavid dynasty). Subuktgin had defeated the Hindhshahi ruler Jaipal. Utbi was the court historian of Ghazni. Mahmud raided 17 times which

 

 

 

 

 

included Nagarkot, Mathura, Kanauj & Somanath temple (1025 AD when Chalukya king Bhima I was ruling Gujarat). He patronized Al-Beruni.

 

4.Muhammad Ghur first invasion was against Multan which he won easily. His invasion of Gujarat ended in a crushing defeat at the hands of the Chalukyan forces. Then followed Battle of Tarain I & II, invasion of Ghadavala ruled by Jaichandra. After Ghur’s death his senior slave Tajuddin Yalduz occupied Ghazni, Qubacha occupied Multan, Ali Mardan took Lakhnauti (Bihar-Bengal) while Aibak took Delhi. At the same time Bhaktiyar Khalji, another slave raided province of Bihar destroying monasteries of Nalanda & Vikramshila & even attacked the Bengal ruler Lakshmanasena. Eastern Chalukyas ruled at Vengi.

 

5.Chola king Rajendra I captured whole of Sri Lanka & reasserted Chola soverignity over Kerala & Pandyan country. He conquered north upto Ganga & assumed the title of Gangaikonda. Marco Polo visited the Pandyan Kingdom around 1293 AD.

 

6.Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s reign saw the rise of two independent states in south – Vijaynagar & Bahamani. The Tungabhadra doab had been a source of conflict between the Cholas & the western Chalukyas, between Yadavas & Hoysalas as well as between the Vijaynagar & the Bahmani Kindom.

 

7.The largest indigenous industry during the Delhi sultanate period was that of textiles. During Firuz Shah the slaves rose to an all time high. While India’s indigenous architecture is trabeate (space spanned by beams laid horizontally), the Islamic form is arcuate (arches are used to bridge a space).

 

8.All the Lodi rulers were buried on the Bagh-i-Jud known today as Lodi Garden. The coins of Mahmud Ghazni, Iltutmish, Nasirudin Mahmud, Balban, Alauddin Khalji bear the name of Abbasid Caliph.

 

  1. Mansabdars had dual ranks – zat (personal rank & expenses) & sawar (cavalry rank). Land revenue systems were batai (crop divided between state & the peasant), hast-o-bud (official inspection for estimation), kankut system (estimation of land & yield), nasaq system (based on previous estimates).

 

  1. The sants of the Vithoba cult & their followers called Varkari emphasized annual pilgrimage to Pandharpur (Mahrashtra). The most important saint was Jnaneshvar. Saguna Bhakti (Tulsi Das, Chaitanya, Surdas, Mirabai, Nimbarka& Vallabha) believed in doctrine of incarnation while Nirguna bhakti (Kabir) worshiped formless aspect of divinity.

 

  1. Guru Angad developed the Gurmukhi script. Guru Arjun Dev completed Adi Granth. Guru Hargobind constructed the Akal Takht at the Golden Temple & asked his followers to built the fort of Lohgarh. Enraged Jehangir had the Guru imprisoned for 2 years.

 

  1. Of the various Sufi orders in India the Chishti (founder was Moinuddin Chisti) & Suharawadi (Shaikh Bahauddin Zakariya whose Khanqah at Multan became an important pilgrimage centre) orders (silsilas)

 

 

 

 

 

were the most prominent. Other prominent saints were Shaikh Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki & Nizamuddin

 

Auliya. Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi (Naqshbandi order) was contemporary of Jehangir.

 

  1. There was no Maratha in Akbar’s nobility & only one in that of Jehangirs. In Aurangzeb’s time the Marathas increased considerably & foreign nobility declined. Dara Shukoh brother of Auranzeb got 52 Upanishads converted into Persian, the collective work being known as the Sirr-i-Akbar. Murshid Quli Khan was a talented revenue officer during the time of Shah Jahan who helped prince Aurangzegb streamline the revenues in Deccan.

 

  1. Uprisings during Aurangzeb period were Jats (Gokula, Rajaram, Churaman & Surajmal-the adopted son of Badan Singh), Satnami, Sikhs (Guru Harkishan summoned to Delhi – Bangla Sahib is the site where he resided; Guru Teg Bahadur was beheaded at present Sis Ganj Gurudwara site; Guru Gobind Singh born in Patna), Bundelas of Ochha (under Chhatrasal)

 

  1. On Baisakhi day in 1699, Guru Gobind Singh established the Khalsa panth. In the succession that followed after Aurangzeb, Govind Singh supported Bahadur Shah in the hope of getting justice against Wazir Khan (who killed Guru’s son) but all in vain. Gobind Singh appointed Banda Bahadur (later kille Wazir khan) to wage war against the mughals but he failed & was humiliated before being executed.

 

  1. Shivaji assumed titles of Chhatrapati, Gobrahmance Pratipalak (protector of cows & Brahmins). His consecration marked the commencement of a new era, the Rajyabhisheka saka.

 

  1. Bengal was the main silk centre. Land owner ship was Khudkhasta (Owner & land in the same village), Pahikashta (different village) & Muqarari raiya (He leased his spare land to tenants called muzarin). During mughal period there is no evidence of joint ownership of land. Slave trade focus shifted from Multan to Kabul. Freshly minted coins had a greater value than those minted in previous regimes.

 

  1. Thomas Roe went to Jehangirs court to get concessions for operation. Dutch obtained a farman from the Sultan of Golconda to operate at Masulipatnam.

 

  1. The Mughal school of painting began with Himayun & reached its pinnacle during Jehangir. Himayun also started the Mina Bazar for royal ladies.

 

 

Miscellaneous Facts from Mocks:

 

  1. Qutbuddin Aibak was not recognized by the Caliph of Baghdad. Kashmir was never a part of sultanate of Delhi. ‘Janam Sakhis’ are the biographical writings abouth the Sikh gurus. The utterances of Namdev, Kabir, Ravidas, Shaikh Fariduddin Masud (Sufi Saint), Dhanna have been included in Adi Granth. Printing press was introduced in India by the Portuguese.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The most important system of land revenue was the Zabti system. The term ‘Urs’ referred to the death anniversary of a Sufi saint. The Sisodiyas of Mewar did not submit to Akbar during his reign. Shahjahan did not write his autobiography. Bairagis in India were a Vaishnavite sect.

 

  1. Portuguese-Dutch-English-French was the correct sequence of foreigners coming to India. In medieval period Polaj was the most fertile land & banjar the least fertile.

 

  1. Bijapur (Adil Shahi Dynasty), Ahmadnagar (Nizamshahi dynasty), Golkonda (Qutbshahi dynasty), Bidar (Barid Shahi dynasty).

 

  1. Delhi Sultanate reached its maximum limit during Muhammad bin Tughlaq. Invasion of Chengiz Khan (Iltutmish reign), Invations of Tarmahirin (Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s reign), Invasion of Nadir Shah (Muhammad Shah) & Invasion of Timur (Nasiruddin Mahmud Tughlaq).

 

  1. Mir Syed Ali, Daswant & Khwaja Abdus Samad were famous painters at the court of Himayun & Akbar. Mansur & Bishan Das were leading court painters under Jehangir. The translation of Mahabharata in Persian (Razmnama) was carried out during the reign of Akbar by Faizi. Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur s built over the tomb of Muhammad Adil Shah.

 

  1. The dominant form of decoration employed in the buildings of the sultanate period is called arabesque. Various regional languages of medieval India arose out of Apabhramsa. The pushtimarg was the philosophy of Guru Vallabhacharya (Surdas was his disciple).

 

  1. Moinuddin Chisti (Ajmer), Nizamuddin Auliya (Delhi), Farduddin Masud (Pak Patan, Pakistan) & Khwaja Syed Mudammad Gesu Daraz (Gulbarga) are the famous sufi shrines.

 

  1. Krittivasa translated Ramayana into Bengali. Kabir, Ravidas, Dhanna & other low cast bhakti saints were belived to be disciples of Ramananda. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah of Golconda founded the city of Hyderabad. Arabs were not a part of Mughal nobility. Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan was a mughal noble & poet under Akbar.

 

  1. The sufi silisilas were Suhrawadi, Firdausi, Shattari, Chisti, Qadiri & Naqshbandi. Amer was Jaipur, Marwar (Jodhpur), Mewar (present-day districts of Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand and Udaipur).

 

 

 

 

JPSC Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for JPSC Prelims and JPSC Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by JPSC Notes are as follows:- For any doubt, Just leave us a Chat or Fill us a querry––