Ancient Indian History(Quick Revision)

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Pre-Harappan Period

    Lower Paleolithic   Hand axe & cleaver industries Pahalgam, Belan valley (U.P),  
    (600,000 – 60,000 BC)     Bhimbetka, Adamgarh, 16 R Singi Talav  
    Middle Paleolithic   Tools made on flakes Bhimbetka, Nevasa, Pushkar, Rohiri  
    (150,000 – 40,000 BC)     hills of upper sind  
    Upper Paleolithic   Tools made on flakes & blades Rajasthan, Parts of Belan & Ganga  
    (45,000 – 10,000 BC)     Valley (U.P).  
    Mesolithic/ Microlithic   Parallel sided blades of chert, Bagor (Raj), Langhnaj (Guj), Sarai  
    (10,000 – 7000 BC)   chalcedony, jasper, agate Nahar Rai, Chaopani Mando, Mahdaha,  
              Damdama (U.P), Bhimbetka, Adamgarh.  
    Neolithic   Earthern pots Mehrgarh (Pak) Gufkral & Burzahom  
    (8000 BC – 2000 BC)     (J&K), Mahgara, Chopani Mando,  
              Kodihwa in Belan Valley (U.P.) Chirand  
              (Bihar).  
    Chalcolithic   Distinct painted pottery Cultures: Ahar culture (oldest), Kayatha,  
    (3000-900 B.C.)   Fire worship widespread. Malwa culture, Salvada culture, ,  
              Prabhas culture, Rangpur culture &  
              Jorwe culture (newest).  
    Copper Hoard Culture   Harpoons, Antennae swords, Gungeria (M.P-largest)  
            Anthromorphs    
    OCP Culture   Pottery with bright red slip & All over gangetic plain with same  
    (Ochre coloured pottery)   painted in black. regions as that of copper hoard culture.  
    •Ahar people (Aravalli region) – distinctive black & red ware decorated with white designs.  
    •Prabhas & Rangpur wares have a glossy suface due to which they are called lusturous red ware.  
    •Jorwe culture (Maharashtra) – painted black on red but has a matt surface treated with a wash.  
            Select Harrapan Cities (Chalcolithic Age)  
1.   Harappa   Great granary, 40 % of total seals found here; Seals usually made of steatite  
      [Dayaram Sahni]   depicting elephant, bull, unicorn, rhinoceros; figurines – torso  
2.   Mohenjodaro   “Mound of the dead”; largest of all cities; Great Bath; granary; city was  
      [R.D Banerjee]   flooded occasionally, figurines of yogi, bronze dancing girl, seal bearing  
          Pashupati.    
3.   Lothal   [S.R. Rao]. Earliest cultivation of rice; Fire altars  
           
4.   Kalibangan   [A. Ghosh]. Fire Altars showing cult sacrifice;  
             
5.   Dholavira,   [R.S. Bisht]    
6.   Banwali   [R.S. Bisht] Fire Altars;    
7.   Mehrgarh   Evidences of cotton;    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Indian Religious Books
Puranas Divided into sarga, pratisarga, manvantantar, vamsa (genealogical list of kings) &
  vamsanucharita. 18 main puranas & 18 subsidiary puranas.
Vedas Meaning “knowledge”. Rigveda (hymns), Yajurveda (sacrificial formulae), Atharvaveda
  (magical charms & spell), Samveda. Vedas are called aparusheya (not created by man) &
  nity
Upanishads About 200 in number. Deal with philosophy. Oldest & most important are Chhandogya &
  Brihadranyaka. Other important are Kathak, Isa, Mundaka, Prasna etc. Do not believe in
  sacrificial ceremonies.
Brahmanas Talks about vedic hymns, their application, stories of their origin. Each Brahmana is
  associated with one of the four VedasAitareya brahmana is associated with Rig Veda &
  Satapatha Brahmana with Yajur veda.
Aranyakas Meaning ‘the forest books’. They discuss philosophical meditation  & sacrifice.
Vedangas Evolved for proper understanding of the Vedas. Six in all: Siksha (phonetics), Kalpa
  (rituals), Vyakarna, Nirukta (Etymology) Chhanda (metrics) & Jyotisha.
Vedanta Advaita Vedanta of Adi Sankara.

 

 

 

 

Ancient Books & Authors

1. Mudrakshasha (Chandragupta Maurya defeating the Nandas); Vishakhadatta
  Devichandraguptam  
2. Malavikagnimitram (Pushyamitra Sunga) Kalidas
3. Gudavaho (Yasovarman of Kannauj) Vakpati
4. Vikramanakadevacharita (Chalukya king Vikramaditya) Bilhana
5. Kumarapalacharita Jayasimha
6. Hammirakavya Nyayachandra
7. Dvayashraya Mahakavya; Sapta Sadhana Hemchandra
8. Navashasankacharita Padmagupta
9. Bhojaprabandha Billal
10. Prithvirajcharita Chandrabardai
11. Meghaduta; Raghuvamsa; Kumarasambhava; Vikramorvasiyam Kalidas
  Abhijnanashakuntalam (Drama);  
12. Mrichakatika Sudraka
13. Uttarama-Charita; Malati Madhava Bhavbhuti
14. Amarakosha Amarasimha
15. Si-yu-Ki Hiuen Tsang
16. Brahmasiddhanta; Khandakhadya Brahmagupta
17. Dasakumaracharita Dandin
18. Astanga-Sangraha; Astanga-Hirdaya-Samhita Vagabhatta
19. Panchsiddhantika; Suryasiddhanta; Brihatsamhita Varahamihira
20. Karpuramanjari; Bala Ramayana; Bala Bharata; Kavyamimamsa; Rajshekhara
  Bhuvana Kosha; Haravilasa  
21. Adinathacharita (Jaina Narrative) Vardhamana
22. Shantinathacharita (Jaina Narrative) Devachandra
23. Parsvanathacharita (Jaina Narrative) Devabhadra
24. Prithviraja Vijay Jayanka
25. Karnasundari Bilhana
26. Saraswati Kanthabharana Bhoja
27. Dasharupa Dhananjaya
28. Harikeli Nataka Visaladeva
29. Prasannaraghava Jayadeva
30. Siddhanta Shiromani [4 parts – Lilavati, Bijaganita, Grahaganita & Bhaskaracharya
  Gola (on Astronomy)]  
31. Rajmariganka (On Astronomy) King Bhoja
32. Chikitsakalika or Yogamala Tisata-Vagbhatta’s Son
33. Mitakasara Vijnanaeshvara
34. Nitishastra (On Polity) Mathara
35. Nitisara  (On Polity) Kamandaka
36. Sushruta Samhita (encyclopedia on surgery) Sushruta
37. Charaka Samhita (Teachings of Atreya) Charaka
38. Buddhacharita, Vajrasuchi, Suandarananda Asvaghosha
39. Mahabhasya Patanjali
40. Harshacharita, Kadambari Banabhatta
41. Ravan Vadha Bhattin

 

 

 

 

 

Famous Inscriptions

Inscription King     Aspect
Junagarh Rock Rudradaman (Saka)   Sanskrit. Says that a dam on the sudarshana lake
            was constructed by Pushyagupta a governor of
            Chandragupta Maurya
Allahabad Pillar Samudragupta   Sanskrit. Composed by Harisena
Aihole Inscription Pulakeshin II   Mentions Harsha defeat by Pulakeshin II.
            Composed by Ravikriti Vishnuvardan son of King.
Gwalior Inscription Bhoja     Most famous Pratihara king.
Hathigumpha Kharvela        
Boghaz koi Proves Rig Veda to be   Indra, Varuna, Mitra, two Nasatyas mentioned
[1400 B.C.] more than 1400 BC old.      
Nanaghat Inscription Satkarni I     Achievements of the king
    [Satvahana king]      
Nasik Inscription Gautamiputra Satkarni   Achievements of the king.
Mehrauli Iron Pillar Chandragupta II      
Mandsor Inscription Kumaragupta I   Composed by Vatsabhatti.
Bhitari Stone pillar Skandagupta        
Tiruvalangadu Rajendra I (Chola)   His conquests (annexed whole of SriLanka)
Uttaramerur Cholar Period   Chola village assemblies
Besnagar Inscription Near Vidisa (MP). Mentions Heliodorus the ambassador of king Antialcidas
    called himself Bhagvata & erected garudadhvaja in his honour of Vasudev.
        Buddhist Councils
I Buddhist Council   500 BC at   Ajatsataru .   Record the Buddha’s sayings (sutra) and codify
    Rajgaha   Presided by   monastic rules (vinaya). Rajgaha is today’s
        Mahakasyapa   Rajgir
II Buddhist Council   383 BC at   Kalasoka   The conservative schools insisted on monastic
    Vaishali         rules (vinaya). The secessionist Mahasangikas
              argued for more relaxed monastic
              rules.Rejection of the Mahasanghikas
III Buddhist Council   250 BC   Ashoka..   Purpose was to reconcile the different schools of
    Pataliputra         Buddhism. Presided by Moggaliputta Tissa
IV Buddhist Council   100 AD   Kanishka   Division into Hinayana & Mahayana. Theravada
    Kashmir   Presided by   Buddhism does not recognize the authenticity of
        Vasumitra &   this council, and it is sometimes called the
        Asvaghosha   “council of heretical monks”.
V Buddhist Council   1871   King Mindon   recite all the teachings of the Buddha and
    Myanmar         examine them in minute detail to see if any of
              them had been altered
VI Buddhist Council   1954   P.M. U Nu    
    Yangoon          

 

            Nastika Shools of Indian System of Philosophy
Charvaka   Believes only in materialism. No life beyond death, no soul no god.
Jaina     The names of two tirthankaras, Rishabhanath & Aristhanemia finds mention in Rig Veda.
540 BC   Twenty third was Parsva, son of Ishvaku king Asvasena. Said to have flourished 300 yrs
          before Mahavira. Mahavira, the last Tirthankara  born in Kundagrama near Vaisali. His
          father Siddhartha was the head of Jnatrika clan & mother Trisala was the sister of Chetaka,
          a Lichchhavi noble. Chetaka’s dauthter was married to Bimbisara the king of Magadha.
          Mahavira was married to Yasoda. Left home at 30 & attained Kaivalya at 42.  He accepted
          4 doctrines of Parsava & added celibacy to it.  Chandragupta Maurya patronized it. Passed
          away at Pawapuri.
Buddha   Gautama (known as Siddhartha as prince) was born in Lumbini near Kapilvastu to
566 B.C.   Suddhodhana, the king of Sakya republic & Mayadevi who died seven days after his birth.
          Gautama was married to Yasodhara from whom he had a son Rahul. 6 years of meditation
          led to enlightenment. First sermon in Sarnath known as ‘Set in motion the wheel of law’.
          Eight fold paths. Buddhism denies efficacy of vedic rituals & superiority of brahmanas.
          Followers were upasakas & bhikshus. Died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar.
            Astika Schools of Indian System of Philosophy
  Vaisesika       Five elements – Earth, water, air, fire, Ether.  
  Nyaya       Accepts all categories of Vaisesika & adds one Abhava (negation).  
  Samkhya       Oldest of all. Twenty five basic principles first being ‘Prakriti’. Gives  
                doctrine of 3 qualities – virtue (sattva), passion (rajas) & dullness (tamas)  
  Yoga           Salvation through: Yama (self control), Niyama, Asanas, Pranayama,  
                Pratyahara (restrain), Dharana (steady mind), Dhyana & Samadhi.  
  Mimamsa       Recognises Vedas as final authority.  
  Vedanta       Adi Sankara is protagonist. Ultimate reality ‘Brahma’ is one. Highest  
                level of truth is that the whole world that exists is Maya. Ramanuja  
                (founder of Sri Vaishnavism) differed from Sankara on his commentaries  
                on Upanishads & Gita.  
                Forms of Marriage
  1.   Brahma     Duly dowered girl to a man of the same class    
  2.   Daiva     Father gives daughter to a sacrificial priest as a part of his fee    
  3.   Arsa       A token bride price of a cow & a bull is given in place of the dowry    
  4.   Prajapatya     Father gives girl without dowry & without demanding the bride price    
  5.   Gandharva     Love Marriage    
  6.   Asura     In which bride was bought from her father    
  7.   Rakshasa     Marriage by capture, practiced especially by warriors.    
  8.   Paishacha     Marriage by seduction    
  Daiva marriage was considered ideal 7 paisacha the worst.    

 

    Dynasties of Ancient Northern India
Dynasty King   Description
Haryanka Bimbisara*   Founded after overthrowing the Brihadrathas. He also annexed
      Anga
  Ajatasatru   Conquered Lichhavis of Vaisali. Also defeated Prasenajit of
      Kosala. Succeded by Udayani who founded Pataliputra.
Sisunga Sisunga   People elected Sisunga as Udayani & his 3 successors were
      unworthy
Nanda Mahapadma   Barber but a great military genius. Defeated many dynasties.
  Nanda*    
Alexander’s Alexander   Defeated Persian King Darius III & marched to India through
Campaign     Khyber pass. King of Taxila offered help.
Mauryas Chandragupta   Educated by Chanakya at Taxila. ‘Parisistha Parvam’ a jain text
  Maurya*   describes that he defeated the Nanda king & became ruler of
  [324-300 BC]   Magadha empire. Defeated Greek, Selecus who had succeded
      Alexander in the eastern part. Selecus sent Megasthenes to his
      court.
  Bindusara   He appointed his two sons, Sumana at Taxila & Ashoka at Ujjain.
  [300-273 BC]   Ptolemy Philadelphous of Egypt sent Dionysius to his court.
  Ashoka   Known as devanampiya & piyadasi. Edicts were in Greek &
      Aramaic in Afghanistan, Prakrit language & Kharosthi script in
      Pakistan. Prakrit language & Brahmi script in other areas. Rock
      Edict XIII (Kalinga war) Bhabru Edict (Buddhism as his religion)
      VII (all sects desire self control & purity) XII (equal respect to all
      religion) II (Dhamma – Common code of conduct). Succeded by 6
      Mauryan kings from Dasaratha to Brihadratha.
Sunga Pushyamitra   Army chief of Maurya king Brihadratha killed him while he was
  Sunga   reviewing the army. Succeded by Agnimitra, Jethmitra &
      Vasumitra. Last king was Devabhuiti.
Meghavahanas Kharavela   Hathigumpha inscription on Udaigiri hills near Bhubneshwar
      refers his achievement till 13th year. Ruled Kalinga.
Satvahanas of Simuka*   Satvahanas also known as Andhras. Succeeded by Krishna,
Deccan [235-213 BC]   Satkarni I, Satakarni II, Gautamiputra Satakarni, Pulmavi II, Sri
      Yajna Satakarni.
Indo Greeks Menander   Ruled in Pakistan region. Converted to Buddhism by Nagasena.
      Milindapanho is related to their conversation.
Sakas Nahapana   Sakas also known as Scythians were driven out of their original
      home land by Yueh Chi who later came to be known as Kushanas.
      Nahapana ruled in western India.
  Rudradaman   Junagarh Rock Inscription talks about him. He undertook the
  130-150 AD   repairs of the Sudarsan dam built by Pushyagupta, governor of
      Chandra Gupta Maurya. Ujjaynii was capital. Dynasty came to an
      end with the last king being defeated by Chandragupta II in 390
      AD
Kushanas Kadphises I   Also called Kujula Kadphises.  Kadphises I was succeded by his
      son Wema Kadphises or Kadphises II – devotee of Shiva.
  Kanishka   Succeded Kadphises II. Capital of his vast empire was Purushapur
  73 – 101 AD   or modern Peshawar.

 

    The Guptas & Later Period
Guptas Chandragupta I Sri Gupta was the first Gupta king followed by Ghatotkacha.
  AD 320 AD Chadragupta I was Ghatotkacha’s son.
  Samudragupta Son of Chandragupta I. Undertook south India campaign.
    Meghavarna, King of Srilanka sent an embassy to his court to
    build a monastery at Bodh Gaya.
  Chandragupta II Son of Samudtragupta & Duttadevi. Married his daughter
  380-413 AD Prabhavatigupta to Rudrasena II of Vataka dynasty. Defeated
    Sakas & took the title of Vikramaditya.
  Later Guptas Kumaragupta I, Skandagupta (Inflicted a crushing defeat on the
    Hunas; repair of the dam on Sudarsana lake built by chandragupta
    maurya & earlier repared by Rudradaman I.
Post Gupta From the decline of Gupta & the rise of Harsha there flourished four major kingdoms
Peiod in north India: Guptas of Magadha, Maukharis (around Kanauj), Maitrakas
  (Saurashtra – Vallabhi as capital), Pushyabhutis of Thaneshwar (Uttaranchal).
Pushyabhuti Harshavardhana Son of Prabhakarvardhana of Pushyabhuti of Thaneshwar. Brother
  606 – 647 AD of Rajyavardhana & Rajyasri (sister married to Maukhari king,
    Grahavarman of Kanauj, later killed by Sasanka of Gauda). Also
    known as Siladitya. Gauda was later divided between him &
    Bhaskarvarman, the king of Kamarupa.
Deccan & Vatakas (Deccan) – Vindhyasakti*, *Pravarasena*. Replaced by Chalukyas.
South India Rashtrakutas – Dantidurga I*. They succeded Chalukyas of Badami.
  Western Gangas (Mysore) – Konkanivarman Dharmamahadhiraja*
  Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi – Mayursarman*, *Kakusthavarman*
  Pallavas of Kanchipuram – Simhavishnu, Mahendravarman , *Narsimhavarman*
  Later Kanauj was ruled by Yashovarman (discussed in Vakpati’s Gaudavaho)
Gurjara Nagabhatta I* After Nagabhatta I came Vatsaraja who defeated Dharmapala but
Pratiharas   was in turn defeated by Rashtrakuta king Dhruva. Dhramapala
    taking advantage installed his nominee chakrayudha at Kanauj
  Nagabhatta II Defeated Chakrayudha & captured Kanuaj & defeated
    Dharmapala. Ramabhadra succeded him
  Bhoja Succeded his father Ramabhadra. Defeated Rashtrakuta king
    Krishna II. He was devotee of Vishnu & took the title of
    Adivaraha.  He was followed by great ruler Mahendrapala I
Palas Gopala* Elected by people to end Matsyanyaya (internal disorder). Next
    was Dharmapala who installed Chakrayudha at Kanauj but was
    defeated by Dhruva.
  Devapala Most mighty pala king.
Rashtrakutas Dantidurga* Dantidurga was succeded by his uncle Krishna I (built Kailasha)
  Dhruva Defeated both the Pratihara king Vatsaraja &Pala  Dharampala.
    Was succeded by Govinda III & later Amoghavarsha I. Later
    came Indra III (defeated pratihara Mahipala I) & Krishna III
Kamarupa Bhaskarvarama Ruled by single dynasty from the time of Mahabharata upto middle
    7th century till Bhaskaravarma (ally of Harsha). Dynasty came to
    an end after his death.

 

                      South India  
    Cholas Karikala   Defeated joint forces of Chera & Pandyas. Also conquered Sri  
                  Lanka. Capital was at Puhar (Kaveripattanam)  
    Pandyas Nedunjeliyan   Capital at Madurai & port at Korkai. Defeated Cholas & Cheras  
    Cheras Nedunjeral   Cheras are also known as Keralaputras. Nedunjeral Adan &  
            Adan   Sengutturan were the greatest king.  
                    Kings & their Court Jewels  
    1.   Pushyamitra Sunga   Patanjali    
    2.   Mahendrapala I (Pratihara)   Rajshekhara    
    3.   Kanishka         Parsva, Vasumitra, Ashvaghosha, Charaka, Sushruta, Nagarjuna    
    4.   Chandragupta II   Kalidas, Fa-Hien, Varahamihira    
                    Monuments of Ancient Period  
  1.   Udaygiri Caves     During Chandragupta’s reign at Vidisha, M.P.  
  2.   Angorwatt Temples     Suryavarman Ii  
  3.   Vikramashila University     Pala King Dharampala  
  4.   Kailash Temple (Ellora)     Rashtrakuta king Krishna I  
  5.   Dilwara Temple     Tejapala  
  6.   Rathas of Mamallapuram     Mahendravarman I (Pallava King)  
  7.   Khajuraho temples     Chandelas  
  8.   Martanda temple (Kashmir)     Lalitaditya Muktapida  
  9.   Gommateswara  (Son of Rishabnath) Chamundaraya, Minister of the Ganga King, Rajamalla  
                      (Sravanbelagola, Karnataka)  
  10. Hoysalesvara Temple (at Halebid) Ketamalla, a minister of KingVishnuvardhana (Karnataka)  
                      Mahajanapadas  
              Kasi       Varanasi    
              Kosala       Sravasti    
              Kuru       Indraprashta    
              Kamboja       Rajput    
              Anga       Champa    
              Avanti       Ujjayini & Mahishmati    
              Ashmaka       Potana    
              Malla       Kusinagar & Pawa    
              Magadha       Rajgriha or Giriraj    
              Matsya       Virat Nagari    
              Vajji       Vaisali    
              Vatsa       Kausambhi    
              Surasena       Mathura    
              Panchala       Aichhatra    
              Chhedi       Shuktimati    
              Gandhara   Taxila & Pushkalavati    

Administrative Units & Their Ancient Names

S Administrative Part North India South India
1. Provinces Bhukti Mandalam
2. Divisions Vishaya or Bhoga Kottams or Vallandadu
3. District Adhistana/Pattana Nadu
4. Tehsil Vihtis Pattala/Kurram

 

Jargon of Ancient Period

Lohit Ayas Copper Pradeshika Head of district Administration
Syam Ayas Iron Nagarka City administration
Vanik Traders Jesthaka Chief of a Guild
Gramini Village Head Prathamakulika Chief of artisans
Bhagadugha Tax collector Uparika Governor of Bhukti
Sthapati Chief Judge Didishu Remarried woman
Takshan Carpenter Amatya High official
Niska Unit of currency Dvija Initiation into education
Satamana Unit of currency Yukta Revenue officer in the Mauryan period.
Pana Term used for coin Rajjukas Land measurement & fixing land revenue
Shresthi Guilds Sabha Assembly of few select ones
Vihara Buddhist Monastery Samiti Larger Assembly
Chaitya Sacred Enclosure Dharamamahamatya Most important post created by Asoka.

 

 

 

 

Miscellaneous Facts:

 

  1. The Sangama literature [0-400AD] consists of 30,000 lines of poetry divided into two main groups, Patinenkilkanakku (older) & Pattupattu (newer). Established by Pandyan kings of Tamil region.

 

  1. The credit to complete the chart of Ashokan alphabets goes to James Prinsep.

 

  1. Most of the modern scripts of India including Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Nagari, Gujarati, Bangla have developed from Brahmi script. Ashokan inscription of Shahbazgari & Manashera are written in Kharoshthi.

 

  1. The earliest coins were punch marked silver & copper coins. They bear only symbol & no inscription or legend. Kushanas (Vima Kadphises – figure of Siva standing beside a bull) issued mostly gold coins.

 

  1. Buddha did not visit Taxila in his life.

 

  1. Some of the important rock painting sites are Murhana Pahar (U.P), Bhimbetka, Adamgarh, Lakha Juar (M.P.) & Kapagallu (Karnatka).

 

  1. The extent of Indus valley civilization was Sutkagendor (Baluchistan), Alamgirpur (Meerut), Daimabad (N. Maharashtra) & Manda (J & K). Harrapan civilization is often referred to as Bronze Age civilization. No unambiguous depiction of horse found on any seal. The largest number of seals depict unicorn.

 

  1. Inscription was from right to left but if more than one line than alternated to left to right & vice versa.

 

  1. Yoga was in vogue in Indus civilization. Shiva, Mother goddess, trees, linga, yoni were worshiped. Chanhudaro is the only city without a citadel & Surkotada is the only site where the actual remains of a horse have been found.

 

  1. Decline of Harrapa: Wheeler (Barbarian Aryans attack), John Marshall (environment degradation).

 

  1. The Nadisukta hymn of Rig Veda mentions 21 rivers which include Ganga in the east & the Kubha (Kabul) in the west. Saraswati is considered to be the most important. Zero was known in rig vedic times

 

  1. In the vedic age the varnas were not rigid but they became so in the later vedic period & became birth based rather than profession based. Untouchability had not yet reared its ugly head. Jati had not become a rigid system. Bali which was a voluntary gift to chief earlier became a regular tax in the later vedic age.

 

  1. Moksha can be acquired by Gyan, Bhakti & Karma. Four dynasties stand out prominently in the sixth century B.C are Haryankas of Magadha, Ishvakus of Kosala, the Pauravas of Vatsa & the Pradyotas of Avanti.

 

  1. During the time of Ashoka, Pataliputra was administered by a city council of 30 members divided into a board of 5 members each. Sales tax on goods was 10 %. The Ashokan Pilar with Lion Capital is located at Lauriya Nandangarh, Pillar capital from Rampurva & Capital from Sarnath. Seven rock cut chaitya

 

 

 

caves in the Barabar & Nagarjuni hill show that the tradition of rock cut caves in India began with the

 

Mauryas.

 

  1. The indo-Greeks were the first whose coins carried the portraits of kings & their names. Also they were the first rulers to issue gold coins.

 

  1. In the south the old phase is known as the megalithic phase with the burials being marked by abundance of iron tools & a Black & red pottery. It appears there was an abrupt change from Neolithic to iron age, without any significant Chalcolithic or Bronze age.

 

  1. Anuloma (marriage between male of higher varna& female of lower varna) was considered better than Pratiloma (vv). Grihasta ashram had the duties of yajna, adhyayana &dana.

 

  1. Hinayana was the old order. Mahayana introduced concept of Bodhisttavas, worship of Buddha as god (Hinayanists considered him just a great teacher), salvation of all beings, Sanskrit as new language. The development of Mahayana philosophy is ascribed to Nagarjuna who propounded Madhyamika school of Buddhist philosophy popularly known as Sunyavada.

 

  1. The Mathura & Gandhara schools of art flourished during Kushana period. Mathura school had the distinction of producing the first image of Buddha & Gandhara school was a hybrid of Indo-Greek form.

 

  1. The Stupas as Sanchi, Sarnatha, Amaravati, Bharhut are the best examples. I-tsing came to India in 7th century after spending several years in Sumatra & Sri Vijaya learning Buddhism.

 

  1. In south India, among the Nayannar saints, Tirumular’s Tirmurais are prominent. Saiva saints (Nayannars) were 63 in number. Lingayat (founded by Basava – Kalachuri) was other important sect of Saivism in south India influenced by both Sankara & Ramanuja. Vaishnave saints known as Alvars are traditionally 12 in number. Collection of their work is known as Nalayiraprabandham.

 

  1. The first Jaina council was held at Pataliputra by Sthulabahu in the beginning of third century BC & resulted in compilation of 12 Angas to replace the lost 14 Purvas. In the sixth century A.D. the second Jaina council was held at Valabhi under Devaradhi Kshamasramana & Jain canon was defined.

 

  1. The avatars of Vishnu are matsya, kurma (tortoise), varah (boar), narasimha, vaman (dwarf), parasurama, rama, Krishna, Buddha (the enlightened one) & kalki (to appear).

 

  1. West Bengal was known as Gauda & East Bengal as Vanga. Utkala (Orissa), Pragjotishpur (Assam).

 

  1. The king of Suvarnadwipa (modern Malaya), Balaputradeva erected a monastery at Nalanda & requested Devapala to donate five villages for the maintenance.

 

  1. The philosophy of Sankaracharya (Adi Sankara) is known as Advaita meaning ‘non dual’. He believed that absolute reality called ‘Brahma’ is non dual. Jyotirmatha at Badrinath, Sharadapitha at Dwakra,

 

 

 

 

 

Govardhanamatha at Puri & Shringerimatha in south. He organized Ascetics in ten orders – Giri, Puri (city), Bharati (learning), Vana (wood), Aranya (forest), Parvata, Sagara, Tirtha, Ashrama& Saraswati.

 

  1. Angkorvat temple dedicated to Vishnu & the famous Borobudur stupa in Java. The Sailendra dynasty ruled over SE Asia & followed Mahayana Buddhism.

 

  1. Eastern King (Samrat), Western King (Suvrat), Northern king (Virat), Southern King (Bhoja). After partition of India the largest number of Harappan settlements have been found in Gujarat.

 

  1. The utensils of the Harappan people were made of clay. Lead was not known to the Indus valley people. The Aryans came from Central Asia is widely accepted. The Vedic Aryans first settled in the region of Sapta Sindhu.

 

  1. The Gayatri Mantra is addressed to Savitri (associated with sun god). Two highest gods in the Vedic religion were Indra (war god) & Varuna (ocean god). Division of vedic society The oldest mention of varna system (four classes) is in the Purusha sukta of Rigveda. The dasas & dasyus mentioned in the Rig Veda refer to non-Aryans.

 

  1. The Hindu social sacraments such as marriage are performed on the basis of ritual described in the Grihyasutras. The symbols associated with the five great events of the Buddha are birth (lotus & lion), great renunciation (horse), attainment of knowledge (banyan tree), first sermon (wheel), death (stupa & foot prints). According to Buddha the cause of all sorrows is Trishna (attachment).

 

  1. Vinayak Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka contain teachings of the Buddha. Jatakas are stories of Buddhas previous life. Outside India, Buddhism was first accepted in Sri Lanka.

 

  1. The Mauryan sculptors had gained highest perfection in the carving of Pillars & the most striking feature is their polish. Two great Buddhist stupas rebuilt during the Sunga (were Brahmanas) Period were Dhammekh stupa at Sarnath & the stupa at Sanghot.
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