Population growth, distribution and density

 

India is the second most populous country in the world next only to China. On March 1, 2011 the total population of India was at 1.247 billion. This accounted for 17.5% of the world’s total population. In other words, about every sixth person in the world there is an Indian. China, the most populous country of the world, is a step ahead of us as every fifth person in the world there is a Chinese. While India possesses only 2.42% of the world’s total land area, she is required to sustain almost 17.5% of the world’s population.

Two components of population growth are: Natural growth: It is analysed by assessing the crude birth and death rates. Induced growth: It is assessed by the volume of inward and outward movement of people in any given area. There are four phases of population growth in India. The period from 1901-1921 is referred to as a period of stagnant growth of India’s population. The high birth rate was counterbalanced by high death rate. The decades 1921-1951 are referred to as the period of steady population growth. The mortality rate started showing downward trend as a result of improvement in general health and sanitation conditions after 1921.

The density of population is expressed as the number of persons per square kilometre. According to 2011 census, the density of population in India is 382 persons per square kilometre. Over the last 100 years density has increased more than four times.

Density and its variation across states can be accessed by the following table:-

State Area Sq. Km Density 2011 Density 2001 Density

2011

India (Average) 3,287,240 382 324
1 Delhi 1,483 11,320 9,340
2 Chandigarh 114 9,258 7,900
3 Puducherry 490 2,547 2,034
4 Daman and Diu 111 2,191 1,413
5 Lakshadweep 30 2,149 1,895
6 Bihar 94,163 1,106 881
7 West Bengal 88,752 1,028 903
8 Kerala 38,852 860 819
9 Uttar Pradesh 240,928 829 690
10 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 491 700 449
11 Haryana 44,212 573 478
12 Tamil Nadu 130,060 555 480
13 Punjab 50,362 551 484
14 Jharkhand 79,716 414 338
15 Assam 78,438 398 340
16 Goa 3,702 394 364
17 Maharashtra 307,713 365 315
18 Tripura 10,486 350 305
19 Karnataka 191,791 319 276
20 Gujarat 196,244 308 258
21 Andhra Pradesh 275,045 308 277
22 Orissa 155,707 270 236
23 Madhya Pradesh 308,252 236 196
24 Rajasthan 342,239 200 165
25 Uttarakhand 53,483 189 159
26 Chhattisgarh 135,192 189 154
27 Meghalaya 22,429 132 103
28 Manipur 22,327 128 103
29 Himachal Pradesh 55,673 123 109
30 Nagaland 16,579 119 120
31 Sikkim 7,096 86 76
32 Jammu and Kashmir 222,236 56 46
33 Mizoram 21,081 52 42
34 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 8,249 46 43
35 Arunachal Pradesh 83,743 17 13

 

 

 

 

 

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