MARATHA EMPIRE

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Rise of Maratha Empire

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was the founder of strong Maratha Empire in the west part of India in 17th Century.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was born in the fort of Shivneri, near from city Junner (Pune District), in the year 1630 (19th February’ 1630). His mother Jijabai Bhosale named him Shivaji in the honor of goddess Shivai Devi. Chhatrapati Shivaji was devoted to his mother Jijabai Bhosale, who was extreme religious. This kind of environment had put deep impact on Shivaji maharaj.

Expansion of Empire and Battles of Shivaji

  • In the 1659 Adilshah sent Afzalkhan with the army of 75000 soldiers to destroy Shivaji with his empire. Chhatrapati Shivaji killed Afzal Khan with full diplomatically. He signaled his troops to start the great assault on the Adilshahi Sultanate.
  • Shivaji defeated Kaltalf Khan, a sardar of Shahista Khan in the Battle of Umberkhind with few soldiers (Mavale).
  • Aurangjeb sent his maternal uncle Shahista Khan with powerful army over 1,50,000 on request of Badibegum Sahiba, Adishahi sultanate. In the April 1663Chhatrapati Shivaji personally made surprise attack on Shahista Khan in the LalMahal Pune.
  • Chhatrapati Shivaji sacked surat ,the wealthy city of mughal empire in 1664. Surat was the financial capital of mughal& trading centre.
  • Chhatrapati Shivaji agreed to give 23 forts and Rs. 4,00,000/- hone, to let his son Sambhaji become Mughal Sardar and ready to meet with Aurangjeb in the treaty of Purander between Chhatrapati Shivaji and Mirza Raje Jaisingh on behalf of Mughal.
  • Chhatrapati Shivaji gained lot of province till jinji in Karnataka after coronation in the period of 1677-1678.
  • Aurangjeb invited Chhatrapati Shivaji to Agra on occasion of his 50th birth anniversary. However, in the court on 1666 Aurangjeb made in stand behind military commanders of his court.Shivaji got angry and he refused gift which offered by Aurangjeb and stormed out of the court. He was house arrested by Aurangjeb .Chhatrapati Shivaji made supreme plan and succeed to escape from Agra.

Ashtpradhans of Shivaji

It was dministrative and advisory council set up by the Indian Shivaji which contributed to his successful military attacks on the Muslim Mughal Empire and to the good government of the territory over which he established his rule.

  • Peshwa- Prime Minister
  • Amatya- Finance Department
  • Sachiv- Home Secretary
  • Sumant- Foreign Secretary
  • Nyayadheesh- Judicial Magistarate
  • Senapati- Commander In chief
  • Panditrao- relifious matters
  • Mantri- Day to day activities

Revenue Administration

T he assessment of revenue was made after a careful survey and classification of the lands according to their quality and yield. The share of the state was fixed at two-fifths of the gross produce. The cultivator was given the option of paying either in cash or kind.

Besides the land revenue, Shivaji had other sources of income, of which the most important were the chauth and sardeshmukhi. The chauth amounted to one-fourth of the standard revenue assessment of the place, while the sardeshmukhi was an additional levy of 10 per cent de­manded from areas outside his kingdom because he claimed to be the hereditary sardeshmukh (chief headman) of the entire Maratha country. These taxes were levied on those living outside Maratha kingdom as a safeguard (a kind of protection money) against Shivaji’s forces plundering or raiding their territory.

Marathas Consolidation and Northward Expansion

 

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